During the 19th century , the forests of Parambikulam were in two broad administrative units viz., Sungam Forest Reserve and Parambikulam Forest Reserve. Porter, in 1886 wrote the first ever plan to manage the Sungam Forest Reserve. Heavy exploitation of forests for valuable timber started then. Teak planting began in Parambikulam during 1921 and in 1983 was the last plantation raised. Sungam Forest Reserve was administratively the Sungam Range of erstwhile Nemmara Forest Division and Parambikulam Forest Reserve was the Parambikulam Range. One of the major milestones was the introduction of the tram way in 1907. It was designed to exploit the forests and remove valuable timber to Chalakkudy wherefrom it could be transported by road. However, the Special FINANCIAL Committee abolished it in 1951. Based on P.Narayanan Nair's plan, a special Teak Plantation Division was constituted from Parambikulam Forest Reserve in 1962. By then the Sungam Forest Reserve was declared as Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary (30 sq. miles) under the administrative control of State Wildlife Preservation Officer, Peermedu. Later in 1973, the Teak Plantation Division was dissolved and merged with the already notified sanctuary and a total area of 271 sq. km under the dual control of DFO, TP division and DFO, Nemmara.
Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is the most protected ecological piece of Anamalai sub unit of Western Ghats, surrounded on all sides by protected areas and sanctuaries of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the sanctuary is endowed with a peninsular flora and fauna which are excellently conserved due to total protection and minimal human interferences. The sanctuary being a major ecological continuum from Peechhi to Eravikulam through Anamalai aids the large viable populations of wildlife. It is the home ground for different races of indigenous people who are as well an integral part of the prevailing harmonious ecosystem.